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Why Are My Dogs (who have been fine together for years) Now Fighting?

A friend and dog trainer I have been working with lately posted some thoughts about a client she was in touch with a short while ago.  I asked her if I could use it for my newsletter and she gave me permission to do so.  I thought it may give some of you with multiple dog households something to think about when an issue arises with dogs that have been happy together for a long time and then “suddenly” they fight with each other.  As with our children, dogs respond to their environment and issues that are happening around them.  We, as dog trainers use a lot of the same psychological techniques that are used to control child behavior.  We look a lot at the environment the dog is in and then we try to hone in on how the “pet parent” is reacting or not reacting to the small things we don’t realize are happening.  Anyway, I thought she made some good points so following is her post:

      “Just got off the phone with an individual with two dogs that he’s had for several years and now they are fighting to the point of great damage and expensive vet bills & now permanently separated. “It’s the younger dog who is causing the problems” per the owner but after asking questions and giving classic scenarios (that he agreed were happening), I am once again affirmed that in my 24 years of dog training almost always in a multi-dog household where aggression happens, it’s rarely instigated by the “problem dog” to which I’m called in to “fix”. He’s a product of something else “broken” in his environment. (Usually another dog’s behavior.)

     After my experiences this weekend (and sadly I’m not legally able to share details), I’m now reflecting that maybe the “problem” 9 yr old is the product of her environment?

      I remember years ago reading the book, “The Heart of Anger” in hopes to “help” my “angry” toddler. Reading that children only mirror there environment, I quickly thought, “I don’t have an anger issue. I’m calm & patience, etc. Just ask those around me.” But as I continued to read, I learned that frustration is a form of anger. And boy, do I ever get frustrated especially with myself.

      All of this to say, this mornings meditations have revealed some connections in behavior and how much of what we as parents and pet owners do, say, or not do and not say, knowingly or unknowingly, shape our children’s and pet’s lives beyond their ability to control.

      I’m not sure I’m sharing this adequately (I’m not a writer) as I am a bit overwhelmed at the responsibility of a parent not to handicap my children for life. Aggression (frustration), hate, malice are learned (mirrored) or fostered behaviors (be it in from inside the family or outside the family), or in a dog’s life, mimicked behaviors. The real concern is that it’s demonstrated at 100% more/worse than how/when/where is was “learned” leaving very disastrous results to the whole family, be it from a pet or a child.”

     So when something changes in your multi-dog household, it is important to ask yourself  Why, How, When, Where did that behavior first occur?  And how did you react?



Christmas is approaching.  Please be careful that your decorations and gifts are kept out of the reach of your pets.  This time of year many dogs end up at the vet, sometimes with tragic and very expensive consequences because of ingesting some of the new and flashy things that are sitting around the house.


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Thanksgiving For Your Dog

This month most of us will be celebrating Thanksgiving.  This is the month when we gather all our family together for large dinners and football games and just appreciation of our lives together.  Many of us include our four legged family members in on the celebration.  There are a few things you may want to take into consideration with your dogs.  Thanksgiving is a “people” holiday and some dogs do not appreciate a lot of people invading their space.  So you want to make sure your dog does not get over stressed with all the friends and family coming and going.  Dogs like routine and when their routine is disrupted you may see some signs of other than normal behaviors, such as hiding away from people, barking excessively, snapping and just general stress.  Make sure your dog has an area where he/she can get away from all the noise and excitement.

Another and possibly more important problem is all the food that is being made and served during this holiday.  While some of you may be tempted to make a nice Thanksgiving dish of people food to give to your dog(s) that day, it is important that you know the people foods that are toxic to your dog and make sure none of these foods are made available for your dog to “find” or certainly do not intentionally feed it to them.  I have included in this newsletter a short list of some of the foods your dog should not have.  You can find this list on the ASPCA website along with a much longer list of even more toxic foods.  We all know about chocolate, but there are many more.  While maybe a piece of plain unseasoned turkey may be a nice treat, heavily seasoned, salted and buttered turkey with all the fixin’s can make your dog very sick.  Enjoy your Thanksgiving and take time to make sure your pup has a healthy fun time too.

Alcoholic beverages and food products containing alcohol can cause vomiting, diarrhea, decreased coordination, central nervous system depression, difficulty breathing, tremors, abnormal blood acidity, coma and even death. Under no circumstances should your pet be given any alcohol. If you suspect that your pet has ingested alcohol, contact your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center immediately.

Avocado is primarily a problem for birds, rabbits, donkeys, horses, and ruminants including sheep and goats. The biggest concern is for cardiovascular damage and death in birds.  Horses, donkeys and ruminants frequently get swollen, edematous head and neck.

Chocolate, Coffee and Caffeine
These products all contain substances called methylxanthines, which are found in cacao seeds, the fruit of the plant used to make coffee, and in the nuts of an extract used in some sodas. When ingested by pets, methylxanthines can cause vomiting and diarrhea, panting, excessive thirst and urination, hyperactivity, abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures and even death. Note that darker chocolate is more dangerous than milk chocolate. White chocolate has the lowest level of methylxanthines, while baking chocolate contains the highest.

The stems, leaves, peels, fruit and seeds of citrus plants contain varying amounts of citric acid, essential oils that can cause irritation and possibly even central nervous system depression if ingested in significant amounts. Small doses, such as eating the fruit, are not likely to present problems beyond minor stomach upset.

Coconut and Coconut Oil
When ingested in small amounts, coconut and coconut-based products are not likely to cause serious harm to your pet. The flesh and milk of fresh coconuts do contain oils that may cause stomach upset, loose stools or diarrhea. Because of this, we encourage you to use caution when offering your pets these foods. Coconut water is high in potassium and should not be given to your pet.

Grapes and Raisins
Although the toxic substance within grapes and raisins is unknown, these fruits can cause kidney failure. Until more information is known about the toxic substance, it is best to avoid feeding grapes and raisins to dogs.

Macadamia Nuts
Macadamia nuts can cause weakness, depression, vomiting, tremors and hyperthermia in dogs. Signs usually appear within 12 hours of ingestion and can last approximately 12 to 48 hours.

Milk and Dairy
Because pets do not possess significant amounts of lactase (the enzyme that breaks down lactose in milk), milk and other dairy-based products cause them diarrhea or other digestive upset.

Nuts, including almonds, pecans, and walnuts, contain high amounts of oils and fats. The fats can cause vomiting and diarrhea, and potentially pancreatitis in pets.

Onions, Garlic, Chives
These vegetables and herbs can cause gastrointestinal irritation and could lead to red blood cell damage. Although cats are more susceptible, dogs are also at risk if a large enough amount is consumed. Toxicity is normally diagnosed through history, clinical signs and microscopic confirmation of Heinz bodies.

Raw/Undercooked Meat, Eggs and Bones
Raw meat and raw eggs can contain bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli that can be harmful to pets and humans. Raw eggs contain an enzyme called avidin that decreases the absorption of biotin (a B vitamin), which can lead to skin and coat problems. Feeding your pet raw bones may seem like a natural and healthy option that might occur if your pet lived in the wild. However, this can be very dangerous for a domestic pet, who might choke on bones, or sustain a grave injury should the bone splinter and become lodged in or puncture your pet’s digestive tract.

Salt and Salty Snack Foods
Large amounts of salt can produce excessive thirst and urination, or even sodium ion poisoning in pets. Signs that your pet may have eaten too many salty foods include vomiting, diarrhea, depression, tremors, elevated body temperature, seizures and even death. As such, we encourage you to avoid feeding salt-heavy snacks like potato chips, pretzels, and salted popcorn to your pets.

Xylitol is used as a sweetener in many products, including gum, candy, baked goods and toothpaste. It can cause insulin release in most species, which can lead to liver failure. The increase in insulin leads to hypoglycemia (lowered sugar levels). Initial signs of toxicosis include vomiting, lethargy and loss of coordination. Signs can progress to seizures. Elevated liver enzymes and liver failure can be seen within a few days.

Yeast Dough
Yeast dough can rise and cause gas to accumulate in your pet’s digestive system. This can be painful and can cause the stomach to bloat, and potentially twist, becoming a life threatening emergency. The yeast produce ethanol as a by-product and a dog ingesting raw bread dough can become drunk (See alcohol).

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If you have a very strong, pushy dog, you want your games to conform to the strength and temperament of your dog.  Games such as tug-of-war is a great game if your dog can’t just drag you all over the yard.  If your dog guards his toys or tugs, you will want to work on a release before you start the game of tug-of-war.  Your dog needs to understand this is a game, not a competition.  Wrestling is fun and great as long as your dog self regulates himself – that is, he does not play to rough and understands this is play.  No serious biting is allowed.  It is not a good idea to allow small children to play very rough, physical games with a dog.

Games like fetch, hide and seek, and find it, are great games to play.  Playing fetch will come natural to some dogs.  Others need to learn to bring back the object and give it to you.

Hide and seek involves having the dog ‘sit’ and ‘wait’ while you hide (or have someone else hold the dog), then calling the dog to come and find you.  A variation on this involves having the dog go find different family members by name.  The person ‘hiding’ calls the dog while you say, “Go find (the person’s name).”  The dog gets lots of praise and treats for a successful find.

The ‘find it’ game can be played with a favorite toy.  Again, have the dog ‘sit’ and ‘wait’.  Show him the toy and encourage him to sniff it.  In the beginning hid the toy in plain sight and give lots of praise and treats for a good find.  Pretty soon the toy can be hidden in more difficult places like under a sofa cushion and in other rooms.  This can be a pre-curser to training your dog for “Nose Work”.

Another fun game is one I call the ‘crazy dog’ game.  In this game you do whatever it takes to get your dog excited and playful.  You need to jump around and act silly with your dog.  After about 30 seconds stop and tell your dog to either ‘sit’ or ‘down’.   When your dog obeys – get him all excited again.  While you are getting him excited, say, “Crazy Dog, Crazy Dog”.  When the game is over, have your dog sit or down and treat him for calming down.  This is a good game to teach your dog how to calm down when he becomes excited.

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Management Skills

Many dog trainers use the term, management, to describe ways in which we can change the environment and structure while living with our dog’s different personalities. Rather than trying to change the dog’s behavior sometimes the best solution is to find a ways to manage the problem. Management refers to looking at the situation and finding ways to change it.
For example, if your dog is always jumping on guests, you can anticipate this behavior and prevent it by crating the dog before guests arrive or by having your dog on a leash and standing on the leash about halfway down so that the dog can sit or stand, but cannot jump on guests. You haven’t changed the dog’s behavior, but you have controlled the situation.
Crating: Crates are a wonderful management tool. A crated dog cannot chew up your furniture or dig holes in your carpet. Rather than complaining about your dog’s destructive behavior, or punishing him after the fact (which is not fair or effective), use the crate when you cannot supervise your dog.

If you crate your dog it is important to make crating a pleasant experience. You can start by feeding your dog in his crate while leaving the door open. Put a soft towel or mat in the crate (if your dog won’t chew on it). Give him a favorite safe toy to chew on while crated. Provide access to fresh water (many dogs enjoy ice cubes when crated). Think of the crate as a puppy playpen. It’s a safe place to confine your dog.

Exercise: Many behavior problems’ are simply the result of too little exercise. Dogs who are constantly in motion, who chew, bark, jump, or dig excessively may be helped by providing more exercise. Many dogs need much more exercise than they are getting. Certain breeds (especially Sporting or Herding dogs) require a large amount of exercise daily. Be aware of your dog’s exercise needs. We always say that, “A tired dog is a good dog.”

Walking is a great exercise for most dogs. Be careful with your puppies and larger breeds that you don’t over-exercise them on hard surfaces such as roads or sidewalks. This can put too much stress on the joints. Walking in grass is much better. Many dogs love to run or jog, but need to build up to more vigorous exercise over time.

Play sessions with other nice dogs are a wonderful way to exercise your dog. Check with your friends and neighbors to set up ‘play dates.’ This also has the added bonus of helping your dog learn how to get along well with other canines. However, be careful that you watch for warning signs of growling or snapping. While play can sometimes be quite rough and physical, none of the dogs should seem unhappy or upset by the activity.

Many dogs learn how to play ‘fetch’ very quickly. This is a great way to wear out the dog without much effort on the owner’s part. Try tennis balls, Kong toys, canvas or plastic bumpers, or rubber balls. If your dog chases the toy but doesn’t bring it back or give it up, have two identical toys. Once he picks up one you can show him the other and throw it in a different direction. He’ll usually drop the first to chase the second. You can hit tennis balls with a tennis racket across your yard to give your dog a good workout. Some dogs love to chase a large, hard soccer ball. These types of balls are usually sold under the name of Boomer Balls.

Mental stimulation: In addition to physical exercise, dogs need mental exercise as well. Dogs are very curious and intelligent creatures, and they can get bored by an unchanging routine or a lack of excitement. A bored dog will usually try to make his own fun and you may not like the results!

There are a few toys available that make your dog work for his food. One is called a Buster Cube. It is a hard plastic cube that has an opening in which you load your dog’s dry food. Once you shake the cube the food is distributed inside into a number of different compartments. Your dog can only get the food by rolling the cube around on the ground. The food comes out randomly. Many dogs love this toy and will become quite excited about using it. The Buster Cube should only be used by one dog at a time to avoid skirmishes, and is safest if used outside in a fenced yard.

A Kong toy is a hard rubber toy that is hollow in the center. You can stuff the Kong with peanut butter, cheese, and dry food. Most dogs love trying to get all the goodies out of the Kong, and will chew on it for hours. You can also fill the Kong with canned dog food or other yummy treats, then freeze it. Your dog will love his ‘pup-sickle,’ especially on hot summer days.

For a fun summer exercise, you might consider buying a kiddie pool and filling it with water so your dog can ‘swim.’ Toss favorite toys and treats in the pool and encourage your dog to go after them. Don’t force your dog into the water if he’s unsure, give him some time to discover and explore it on his own.

Some dogs, especially diggers, appreciate a sandbox. Bury goodies, toys, and sterilized bones for your dog to find. This will also encourage him to direct his digging urges to an appropriate place.

You can keep your dog busy and active by taking him with you on short errands. Be sure that the weather is not too hot. Short trips are usually interesting and enjoyable for your dog. You can combine your errands with quick walks or training sessions in different locations. A change of scenery is as interesting for a dog as it is for a person.

With a little bit of creative thought, you can probably come up with lots of ways to keep your dog busy and happy. JUST HAVE FUN WITH YOUR BEST FRIEND!!!

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This month we are focusing on some very basic care of your new best friend. These basics include food, nutrition, feeding schedules, veterinary care, and grooming.

FOOD: There are still many misconceptions about food and feeding. For example, many people still believe that free feeding (having food always available) is a requirement. It is usually better to feed twice a day, about twelve hours apart. However, there are always individual situations to consider. If you have a very young puppy, you will want to feed the puppy 3 times a day for up to about 4 to 6 months, after that you can change the feeding schedule to twice a day.

Another misconception is that all dogs should be on puppy foods until they are at least a year old. For certain large and fast growing breeds, switching over to adult food sooner (around 6 months) is a better idea. Too much fast growth can stress and strain joints, contributing to possible orthopedic problems. Switching over from one food to another slowly over a week or so is also important. You should just begin to add more of the adult food (or and different brand) and give less of the puppy food until you are feeding only the correct amount of the newly introduced food to your puppy. You are basically phasing out the old food.

Also, many people overfeed their dogs. The “rib check” is a quick and easy way to gage weight. You should not be able to see the dog’s ribs when the dog is in his normal stance. You should be able to easily feel a dogs ribs through a thin layer of fat by slightly pressing on the rib area when your dog is standing.

Finally, there is the belief that all dog foods are the same, so you might as well feed the cheapest formula available. LOOK CLOSELY AT THE INGREDIENTS LABELS. Look for high quality dog foods. The first ingredient should be MEAT (not meat meal). Carbohydrates should come from vegetables and fruits. There should be very little grain or no grain at all in the food and ABSOLUTELY NO BI-PRODUCTS. By-products are dangerous for your dog. No one can really tell you what “by-products” are. “By-products” are used as a filler. It has no nutritional value. It is whatever is left over after the rendering process. The leftover “scrap” can contain anything including what comes up off the floor of the rendering plant. Many dogs have lost their lives or been sickened from “by-product” and some leading dog food companies have had many recalls because of what has been found in processed dog food. Your dog food should be made in the U.S. or Canada.

Yes, higher quality foods are a bit more expensive but you will be feeding your dog less food with higher nutritional value and there will be less POOP to pick up because there are less fillers added to the food, (Grain is a filler. Dogs do not need grain and it can cause allergies). Always consult your veterinarian for any specific nutritional problems or questions. Your dog may have a condition where you may need to have him on a special diet for the condition or you may have to make your own unprocessed dog food. Keep in mind that your veterinarian may be knowledgeable but is probably not a canine nutritional specialist. You may want to consider finding a good canine nutritional specialist you can consult if your dog has digestive problems.

VETERINARY CARE: We know that the dogs coming into our classes have already seen a vet because we have checked shot records at the first class. However, some people might be using a shot clinic rather than a full-service vet. In particular, it is important to have heartworm tests and medication, and an annual physical exam. Being aware of slight physical or behavioral changes is also important, (dogs who limp, seem slightly depresses, etc.) We always recommend being safe and checking with the vet with any health care concerns. You also want to have your dog on a good flea and tick repellent.

PICK UP YOUR DOG’S POOP!!! It is absolutely imperative that you pick up after your dogs in public areas. Carry poop bags with you anytime you are with your dog any place other than your own yard. Dog poop is a BIO-HAZARD. Disease can be spread from one dog to another from dog poop. What is the first thing your dog does when he sees a pile of poop on the ground – That’s Right, he sniffs it. Did you know that Parvo virus can live for 3 days in the environment and it is an air born disease? If your dog is unprotected and sniff’s a sick dog’s poop you may end up with a very expensive vet bill or at worst, a dead family pet. It is really not that bad to pick up dog poop with a bag. Put your hand in the bag and use it as a glove. Pick up the poop and slip the upper part of the bag over the poop, then tie it up. Toss it in the next trash can you see.

Dogs can be very expensive. Personally, I recommend you get health insurance on your dog. You can get policies that pay on even the yearly check-ups. Please love your dog enough to keep him healthy.

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It is July and we are well into summer. There are a lot of things going on in our lives this month. First and foremost is the summer heat. We always have to be aware of shelter and safety for our best friend. Whether your dog is an indoor pet or an outdoor pet you need to make sure he is protected from the summer heat. We all know we should not leave our dogs in cars on hot days. The reason for that is that a car can become very hot in a very short period of time (10 minutes your care can reach 102 degrees or more).

Anytime the temperatures are reaching into the 80 and 90 degree marks we have to think about how hot our dog gets when he is left outside. You need to make sure your dog has plenty of water. It is very inexpensive and easy to set up a small play pool for your dog. Dru loves her pool, she splashed and swims in circles on hot days and then she gets out and rubs herself dry on the grass and lays in the sun. Another reason I like having the play pool is because the other three dogs can drink out of it and there is little chance that the pool will get dumped over like a regular water dish can. You do want to be sure you keep the water fresh in the pool.

Your dog needs nice cool areas to rest in on hot days. My dogs have access to the kitchen through their doggy door so they can come inside in the air conditioning during the heat of the day. If you have a dog that has to remain outside in the heat you need to make sure he has a nice large area or several smaller shaded areas in your yard where he can get out of the heat. He also need access to a safe covered area in the shade to get out of rain and hail this time of year. But be aware that a plastic or wooden dog house can get very hot without ventilation of some sort.

Do you know the signs of overheating in your pet? Your dog will have an increased heart and respiratory rate, he may be panting excessively and drooling. He will act fatigued, his gums may be dry or pale. His eyes may glaze over and he may seem confused. If you see any of these symptoms, he needs to get into an air conditioned area and call your vet.

If you have a dog that has a very heavy thick coat, you may want to get him sheared a bit, but do not shave your dog without talking to your vet. A dogs coat protects them from the sun and bug bites. While some breads need to have shorter hair in the heat, others need the insulation it provides.

Make sure you protect your dog’s feet from hot asphalt and cement. Hot pavement can burn your dog’s paws and can cause them to overheat very quickly. There are products you can get that help to protect paws. Moisturizers, dog shoes or socks, and paw wax. The safest thing is to keep your dog off of hot pavement. Along with tending to your dog’s paws, you need to also think about his nose. Pink nosed and thin coated white dogs sunburn easily.

Last, but not least: Never leave your dog outside unattended when fireworks are being set off. More dogs escape and go missing during the 4th of July holiday than any other time of the year. Dogs can be very frightened of the loud noise of fireworks. Make sure your dog is inside in a safe and secure area during loud celebrations. Allow them to hide somewhere or have them in a safe, covered crate or kennel.

Take care of your BEST FRIEND and the unconditional love and respect you receive is the best experience you can have in your life.

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Safety and Dangers

In many ways, our dogs are like perpetual children. Many of them never mature, and unfortunately, they never learn to avoid certain dangers.  Therefore, it is our job to protect them. I don’t want to scare anyone unnecessarily, but you always need to be aware of possible threats to your dog’s well-being.

Many dogs eat things that could be very harmful. Some will eat nearly anything (rocks, pantyhose, electrical cords, safety pins, etc.), some breeds seem more prone to the desire to eat non-food items, a condition known as Pica. In particular, retrievers can make a snack of anything they can manage to swallow. This may have to do with the fact that they’ve been bred to use their mouths extensively in their work. If you have a dog who is prone to Pica, you will learn to become very neat and tidy.

Many dogs die from ingesting poisons. Anti-freeze seems to be particularly attractive to dogs. It has a sweet taste, but just a small amount can kill a dog in a very short period of time. The same is true of many pesticides. Even lawn chemicals can do damage over time. If you use lawn chemicals, make sure you keep your dog off the lawn for at least twenty-four, preferable forty-eight hours. The chemicals from lawn treatments stick to the dog’s paws and then the dog licks them. Always wash off your dog’s paws after is has been on a treated lawn. Human medications, such as Tylenol and Advil, can be deadly for dogs, even in small doses. If you ever suspect that your dog has eaten human medications, or anything toxic, call the veterinarian immediately. Every dog owner should go to the ASPCA website and look at all the things we use and eat on a daily basis, and all the things that your dogs can come in contact with that are Toxic.

“Leave it” and “Trade it:”
A very useful exercise that may help you control what your dog puts in her mouth is the “leave it” cue. You teach the dog that “leave it” means to move away from the object she is approaching. You begin teaching this cue by showing the dog a piece of food. As the dog starts to take the food say, “Leave it” (in a pleasant tone) and wait for the dog to stop trying to get the treat and looks up at you. Say, “Yes!” when the dog looks up at you or looks away from the treat and give him the treat. The idea is to offer your dog something better than the object you’ve asked your dog to leave alone. Once your dog knows what “leave it” means, you can use it for anything you don’t want her to touch. Trade it is a similar command. I use, “trade it” when the dog already has an object in his mouth I want him to give up. I wave a tasty treat under the dog’s nose as I ask, “trade?’ Usually the dog will drop the object to take the treat. You can then give your dog the treat and move the dropped object away.

Continue reading Safety and Dangers

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How Dog’s Learn

This month let’s talk about how dogs learn.

To be successful in your training efforts, you need to understand a bit about how dogs learn. First of all, dogs are not machines. You can’t just flip a switch and expect the dog to do what you want. Dogs are very individual in their responses to training. Some dogs learn very quickly, even with poor instruction. Others require lots of patience and repetition in order to understand basic ideas. Just like people, some of you pick up on instructions and ideas very quickly; while others will need more time in order to understand the information.

I caution you very strongly against comparing the progress that you and your dog make against the progress of other dogs you may know. There are always teams that make phenomenal progress. Then there are those who come along a little slower at first. Certain breeds are known for being easier to train than others. However, any individual dog within that breed may not conform to that expectation. So be wary when someone makes a generalization such as, “Everyone knows Goldens practically train themselves,” or, “It’s absolutely impossible to obedience train a Scottish terrier.” All dogs have the capacity to learn and to become excellent companions.

Don’t expect your dog to learn in an organized, orderly fashion. Just when you think she understands something one day, she’ll give you a completely blank look when you ask for the behavior the next day. For another exercise, you may really struggle and be ready to give up when suddenly your dog “gets it.” Learning occurs in fits and starts, not in a straight line.

Above all, PATIENCE, PRACTICE and CONSISTENT EFFORT will go a long way towards achieving your training goals.

Finally, never, ever say, “This dog is stupid.” I have yet to run into a moronic canine. More likely, your training skills aren’t well developed. You may be making mistakes and blaming the dog. As you learn to become a better trainer, your dog will become better behaved.

Remember, training should be a fun time for your dog. Getting frustrated with your dog only upsets you and your dog. Several short training sessions a day works much better than 30 minutes to an hour of trying to keep your dogs attention on repetitive commands. Keep your sessions to 10-15 minutes max.

Don’t yell at your dog. Louder is not better. Repeating the command a hundred times does not work. The dog needs to be shown what you want him to do and then immediately rewarded for that behavior.